International Correlator Collaboration

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ROACH CORRELATOR COSTS

Werthimer, Wright, Backer, Manley 12may07. Manley update: 12July09

The hardware costs for replication of a ROACH-based correlator are an issue of consideration in the discussions.

Comparison to IBOB/BEE2 Processing Abilities

We had hoped that a ROACH would have a comparable processing ability of a BEE2 because it'd have twice the capacity and run at twice the speed.

The SX240 is not available in the ROACH1's 1136 pin package. ROACH2 will target the larger 1738-pin package and should become available towards the end of 2009. It will include an additional two CX connectors and potentially an extra DRAM DIMM slot.

Capacity-wise, (on paper, at least) a ROACH2 with an SX240 would be roughly equivalent to 3/4 of a BEE2. The initial ROACH1 with an SX95 doesn't make half a BEE2 as it is BRAM constrained (SX95 is about 3/8 of a BEE2's BRAM). BRAM is the current limiting-factor for the X engine and will become the limit for FFTs in the F engine. As an aside, the fact that the SX95 has more BRAM than the LX110 is what motivates the choice to select the SX95 FPGA instead of the LX110 part for ROACH1. An SX95 ROACH1 has between 2 and 3 times the processing capacity of an IBOB's 2VP50, depending on your metric.

In terms of operating speed, initial investigations suggest that the ROACH board will run at typical speeds of 250MHz, the limitation being the controllers for the peripheral cores used. If no peripherals are required (10GbE, DRAM, QDR etc), then speeds closer to 350MHz should be achievable. Work will be ongoing through 2009 to improve the speeds of the peripheral cores in order to increase typical operation speeds. As of Dec 2008, ROACH has a processing speed improvement of at least 1.25x faster than the legacy hardware (250MHz vs IBOB/BEE2s' 200MHz).

Thus, in terms of raw processing power, an SX240-equipped ROACH2 could replace a BEE2, or 6 IBOBs. An SX95-equipped ROACH1 would be around half a BEE2 or 3 to 4 IBOBs. It needs to be considered that practically this additional processing power would not always be easily realisable: The X engines can reasonably effectively load-share at any incoming F engine rates; but for F engines, processing a 150MHz band on a board running at 250MHz (for example) would be an inefficient operation - we'd run the boards at 150MHz anyway, losing the speed advantage that ROACH offers.

We would thus like to caution designers against using raw processing power as a metric for determining hardware requirements, but to also consider the mapping of the algorithms into the hardware and the losses this might incur.


Hardware Costs

A 2008 costing of the ROACH board is 2500 USD; completing this with Xilinx Vertex 5 chip, would bring it to 4500 USD; for simplicity and perhaps providing some overhead for case, power supply and cabling, let's call this 5000 USD. The 2GSa/s ADC is 1200 USD ea for low quantities and under 500 USD for larger quantities. One ADC is required per dual-polarization antenna. Thus, the total cost for a fully populated ROACH is about 6000 USD.


Mapping to Correlator Requirements

With current hardware, we can get 2 "F" engines per IBOB with 2048 channels and a top speed of 200MHz. "X" engines: two 32 antenna X engines per BEE2 user FPGA, again with a top speed of 200MHz. The current 32 antenna, 200MHz correlator requires 16 IBOBs and four BEE2s (16 user FPGAs). If the speed of F engines (bandwidth) equals the speed of X engines (clock rate), the ratio of required F:X engines is 1:1.

Ethernet switch requirements

Switch port requirements scales linearly with the number of antennas and the bandwidth. A single antenna, dual polarization complex data stream of ~450MHz with 4-bit samples will tie up a full 10Gbe port. Ports on 10GbE switches come in at the 300 to 1000 USD level. For simplicity, we will assume 500 USD per port.

Cost (switch) = 500 x N x B/450MHz

F engine

The "F" operation for 2 antennas and 2 polarization lines from each at 250 MHz with 8k channels can, nominally, be done in a single ROACH board. Computation requirements scales linearly with the system bandwidth and logarithmically (barring memory requirements) with the number of frequency channels. Memory requirements scale linearly with FFT size. It is not yet known for certain that delay/fringe rate computation will fit with this F design. However, FFT length can be traded for these additional features. We will assume 4k channels for costing

Thus, assuming higher volume ADCs,

Cost (F engine) = 6000 x N x B/500MHz x (1+log(C/4k)) USD

X engine

The computation required for the "X" operation depends on the number of antennas (scales with N^2) and the bandwith to be processed (scales linearly). Nominally, one X engine of length suitable for 64 antennas should fit on one ROACH board and each engine will process 250MHz/64 bandwidth. No ADCs are required for these ROACH boards.

A simplified cost estimation equation of the X engine requirements is then

Cost (X engine) = 5000 x N^2 /64 x B/250MHz USD.


Total

More work is needed to assess the cost algorithm and ability of design to include such items as delay/rate tracking; walsh switch cycles; etc. Note that non-binary numbers of antennas is currently not an option.


Cost = 12BN x (1.1 + log(c/4096)) + 0.3125BN^2 USD

Where:

  • B is bandwidth in MHz, rounded-up to be one of [125MHz, 250MHz, 500MHz, 1GHz, 2GHz].
  • N is the number of dual polarisation antennas and N=2^?.
  • C is the number of frequency channels and C=2^? and C>64.

Examples of Efficient mapping of ROACH processing ability:

Assuming a board speed of 250MHz:

F engine (one F engine accepts dual-polarised data): Two 250MHz, 8k chan engines on one ROACH, or, two 500MHz, 4k chan engines, or, one 500MHz, 8k chan engine.
X engine (assuming SX95): two 32 antenna X engines per ROACH or one 64 antenna engine.

Thus, for 32 antenna, dual polarisation, full stokes, 250MHz, 8k channel system: 32 ROACH boards. Or, with 500MHz bandwidth, 4k chan, 48 ROACH boards.

The grand total for 32-antenna, 500-MHz, 4k-channel, full Stokes correlator is ~275,000 USD without computers and attendant disks, etc. This is replication cost with little room for system integration.

CARMA Correlator

Hawkins 08may07

Current systems:

  • Antennas; 15-CARMA antennas (http://www.mmarray.org/), 8-SZA antennas (http://astro.uchicago.edu/sza/)
  • Bandwidth; CARMA has 4GHz IF double-sideband. SZA has 8GHz IF single-sideband.
  • Polarization; single (currently)
  • Phase-switching; 180-degree phase switching at 1024pps (977us period, 950us correlation time), with a Walsh-sequence length of 16-states (15.625ms completion time). 90-degree phase-switching at 64Hz (15.625ms period), i.e., every time a 180-degree sequence completes.
  • Delay tracking; phase-offset (lobe-rotation) and phase-slope correction. Primary lobe-rotation, or phase-offset tracking, of the first LO is implemented in the LO analog electronics. Secondary lobe-rotation of the bands downconverted within the 1GHz to 9GHz IF band, must be tracked in the digitizer board. For example, the phase of the numerically controlled oscillators (NCOs) used to mix the positive-frequency signal to complex-baseband can be used to compensate the phase. Delay-slope correction is implemented at the whole-sample scale using FPGA memory resources, and logic element multiplexers, while sub-sample delay correction is implemented using asymmetric FIR filters with re-loadable taps. Tap updates occur on the 90-degree phase-switch timescale.
  • Bands; CARMA has 3 independently tuneable bands, soon will have 8. SZA has 16 500MHz bands (covering their 8GHz IF).
  • Bandwidth modes; 500MHz, 250MHz, 125MHz, 62MHz, 31MHz, 8MHz, and 2MHz.
  • Downconversion; analog downconverters are used to extract either a 500MHz band, or a 250MHz band from the 1GHz to 9GHz IF. Two analog filters are used, as the 250MHz filter has a flatter passband than the 500MHz filter. The 250MHz signal is sampled at 1GHz clock rate, and then FIR filtered into the 250MHz bands and lower.
  • Readout times; 90-degree Walsh phase-switching completes every 250ms. Readout times are nominally every 500ms from the hardware to the pipeline processing machine (which receives data from all baselines in all bands). Data typically arrives at the processing machine within about 100ms of a 500ms boundary (relative to a 1pps GPS reference).
  • Channel resolutions; 500MHz mode produces about 100-channels, while spectral modes produce up to 1k-channels. Both auto-correlation and cross-correlation spectra are generated, with identical channel resolutions.

Future systems / wish-list:

  • 23-station correlator (CARMA + SZA antennas)
  • 8GHz IF double-sideband
  • Selectable processing of single- or dual-polarization
  • `Buddy antenna' phase-tracking system. We plan to utilize cheaper antennas paired with the CARMA/SZA antennas, to track the phase of a calibrator. The phase-estimate from the tracking system would then be applied as a phase-correction to the radio-source data received on the CARMA/SZA antennas (at 500ms timescales). Requires a low-cost, wideband, coarse resolution, correlator.
  • Option; copy MeerKAT 32-antenna bands to create 23-antenna 500MHz or 1GHz bands.
  • Option; Direct digitization of the full IF using 20GSps digitizer (from Agilent via BWRC). Filter the 10GHz sampled band (8GHz useable) into multiple (16) 500MHz (or narrower) bands. Send the multiple bands into parallel CASPER processing backends.

PAPER/CASPER Correlator

Backer 08may06; 09nov24 update

PAPER (Precision Array to Probe the Epoch of Reionization) is a 100-200 MHz dipole array being deployed in Green Bank (PGB) and in South Africa (PSA); http:astro.berkeley.edu:~dbacker/eor. PGB is 16 antennas, single polarization, and will grow to 32 antennas, dual polarization by 2010 March. This is our testbed array. PSA was deployed in 16-dipole configuration for a 7-day run in 2009 October, and will be expanded to 32 dipoles, full Stokes in 2010 January. A CASPER FX packetized correlator for 8 antennas, full Stokes and 150-MHz bandwidth is in use on PGB; this will be expanded to 32 antennas in early 2010. The 32-antenna correlator architecture is QuADC, IBOB and ROACH hardware boards.

To Be Done:

  • convert CASPER correlator design to 10 Gbe output
  • develop Monitor, Control, Data Acquisition (MCDA)
  • lab test 32-antenna
  • field test 32-antenna unit
  • add coarse delay to F-engine to allow varying cable lengths
  • add QuADC input statistics monitoring
  • grow antenna inputs to 64 for 2010 campaign; i.e., complete by 2010 June
  • possibly add phase switch to remove ADC cross-coupling

ATA Correlator-Beamformer-Imager (CoBI)

Backer 08may07; 09nov24 update

The current ATA correlator is an FX correlator designed by Lynn Urry. Bandwidth is 100 MHz. Units with 64 IF inputs and integration time down to 2.5s are available. More complete description can be updated by Wright or MacMahon. A next generation, 500-MHz bandwidth correlator-beamformer-imager is being developed in collaboration with KAT team (see below), ASIAA (Taiwan), Brigham Young University and Caltech. A first step is being taken with a "pocket" version, PoCoBI. An NSF ATI proposal was submitted 2009 Nov for 2010-2011 effort.

Features:

  • 500-MHz bandwidth
  • integrate with KAT ADC (see following)
  • minimum 4k channel PFB
  • delay/phase tracking in F engine either pre/post PFB
  • walsh switching drive waveform output and digital inversion on ADC input
  • integrated beamformer (one or more pointings; feed pulsarometer, setiometer)
  • stream packetized correlations (uv data) to 10 GbE switch for cluster cpu/gpu
  • 10-ms integration (goal..1 factor of 10 at a time)
  • realtime imaging (and rfi excision and adaptive calibration)

Karoo Array Telescope

The Karoo Array Telescope (KAT) is South Africa's SKA pathfinder array. It will be built in two stages:

  1. KAT-7 demonstrator array with seven antennas, itself in two phases.
  2. MeerKAT, the full 80-dish array.

KAT-7 precursor

Manley original; Marten update 09nov23; Manley update 2010aug18.

As a precursor to the KAT-7 digital backend (DBE), a pocket-correlator instrument will be constructed for primarily for debugging dishes, pointing subsystems, RF feeds and frontends. It is known internally as the "Fringe-Finder". This device will be co-housed in the antenna control container and not in the computing container (as such, it needs to be compact). It will be the first complete product developed in collaboration with GMRT. Target completion is mid-2009 with deployment by year-end.

Features:

  • Based on a single, stand-alone ROACH board.
  • Four inputs, usually mapped to two dual-pol antennas in the KAT application.
  • Will not require a computer to operate, beyond storing data (option to store data directly using external USB harddrive).
  • 500MHz bandwidth (processed using wideband real PFB/FFT blocks).
  • Hardware interpolated fringe rotation.
  • Coarse delay and fine delay (maximum coarse delay length will be BRAM limited).
  • Arbitrary per-channel phase and amplitude correction with update rates of <10 seconds.
  • Synchronous control of external noise diodes at antennas.


Current system has following specs:

  • 4 input (2 dual-pol or 4 single)
  • 400MHz
  • 512 channel (4 tap PFB FIR)
  • coarse delay allowing up to 2047 clock sample delays
  • 32-bit DRAM based accumulator
  • current data output is via 1Ge ethernet link
  • ~60% BRAMs, ~90% DSP48Es, ~80% registers, ~70% LUTs, ~90 slices used
  • ~100ms dump times supported

Planned future upgrades:

  • add fine and fringe delay block in development in collaboration with GMRT

KAT-7

The KAT-7 correlator will be based on next-generation hardware platform, ROACH. The firmware will be based on PAPER's 8 antenna design currently deployed in Green Bank. ROACH's architecture closely resembles that of a BEE2, which should enable us to port the existing CASPER/PAPER correlator design to the new platform without too much difficulty.

Basic specifications for first phase (end 2010) are as follows:

  • 8 dual-polarisation inputs (7 antennas + 1 test input).
  • 512MHz instantaneous bandwidth (IF center frequency 256MHz, Fsample=1GHz, selectable output frequency channel subset).
  • 1024 frequency channels.
  • Programmable integration periods down to 100ms.
  • Coarse and fine delays.
  • Hardware interpolated fringe rotation.
  • Arbitrary per-channel amplitude and phase correction.
  • Time-syncronisation and up-front packet time-stamping synchronised to an external 1PPS input.
  • Synchronous control of external noise diodes at antennas.
  • Continuous raw data capture on all antenna inputs (not simultaneous with correlator operation).

KAT-7 will use the KATADC with onboard analogue amplitude control (-11.5dB to +20dB in 0.5dB steps). It also has the ability to switch out the analogue input to a 50ohm terminator in case of over-range inputs that could damage the device.

KAT requires a beamformer mode, which will amount to an addition to the X engine. This will be completed in 2011.

The following diagram illustrates KAT-7's proposed Digital Backend architecture:

KAT-7 architecture.png

MeerKAT

Targetting 64 antennas (Gregorian offset, 13.5m effective), with 1024MHz of instantaneous bandwidth (phase 1) and 2048 frequency channels and 8km baselines (phase 1), MeerKAT will be a significantly more challenging technically than KAT-7. The datarates from this instrument are signficantly higher than KAT-7 and at this stage it would seem unreasonable to expect to be able to capture raw data from each antenna. It is still unclear if MeerKAT will use ROACH-II hardware, or an entirely new board. The technical requirements have yet to be finalised.

Phase 2 will add a spur of 60km and increase the bandwidth, including a new low frequency feed. Phase 3 and 4 are not yet well defined.

MeerKAT will require a new ADC(s).


GMRT Correlator

Gupta, July 2008

The GMRT consists of 30 antennas, each of 45 meter diameter, operating in interferometric and array mode. The present configuration processes a maximum of 32 MHz bandwidth in each of 2 orthogonal polarizations, using an ASIC based FX correlator that gives 256 channels across the band. An array processor attached to the output of the F stage of the correlator produces a single incoherent and coherent beam output for pulsar work.

The GMRT is going for an upgrade where the maximum instantaneous bandwidth will be 400 MHz. For this, a back-end with the following specifications is required :

  • Number of stations : 32
  • Max instantaneous BW : 400 MHz
  • Number of spectral channels : 4-8 K
  • Number of input polarizations : 2
  • Full Stokes capability
  • Dump times : 1 sec or better
  • Coarse and fine delay tracking
  • Fringe rotation
  • Walsh switching
  • Subarray support
  • Incoherent and phased array beams (for pulsar work)

Time scale for implementation : late 2009 / early 2010

FASR Correlator

Hurford/Bastian, July 2008

The Frequency Agile Solar Array is a radioheliograph designed to perform ultra-broadband imaging spectroscopy, spanning 50 MHz to 21 GHz using three arrays of antennas (FASR-A, -B, and -C). These will share a common correlator and data system. FASR is currently in its design and development phase pending NSF-ATM approval for construction funding.

  • Number correlator inputs: 64
  • Number pol'n channels: 2
  • Bandwidth: 500 MHz
  • Number frequency channels: 4096
  • Stokes: full
  • Dump time: 20 ms
  • Phase switching, coarse/fine delay, fringe rotation
  • Onboard computation of signal moments, each channel after F, before X
  • Subarray support

Time scale for implementation: 4 station engineering prototype in 2010-11; full deployment in 2011-12

Medicina Correlator

Medicina, Italy, October 2008

Deployment and some early results are described at Medicina_Correlator.

detailed description coming soon

  • Number correlator inputs: 32
  • Number pol'n channels: 1
  • Bandwidth: 16 MHz
  • Number frequency channels: 2048
  • Stokes: full
  • Dump time: 30s
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